Despite the American Black Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. However, the AFSA was unable to centralize communications intelligence and failed to coordinate with civilian agencies that shared its interests such as the Department of State, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Truman ordered a panel to investigate how AFSA had failed to achieve its goals.

The Black Chamber was located on East 37th Street in Manhattan.

Its purpose was to crack the communications codes of foreign governments.

Jointly supported by the State Department and the War Department, the chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. telegram company, to allow government officials to monitor private communications passing through the company's wires. They were established by the French and British governments to read the letters of targeted individuals, employing a variety of techniques to surreptitiously open, copy, and reseal correspondence before forwarding it to unsuspecting recipients. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating: "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail".

The National Security Agency (NSA) is an intelligence organization of the United States government, responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). Moreover, NSA maintains physical presence in a large number of countries across the globe, where its Special Collection Service (SCS) inserts eavesdropping devices in difficult-to-reach places.

government communications and information systems against penetration and network warfare.

SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass "close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, breaking and entering".

Unlike the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), both of which specialize primarily in foreign human espionage, NSA does not unilaterally conduct human-source intelligence gathering, despite often being portrayed so in popular culture. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget, operating as part of the Department of Defense and simultaneously reporting to the Director of National Intelligence.

Instead, NSA is entrusted with assistance to and coordination of SIGINT elements at other government organizations, which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities without the approval of the NSA via the Defense Secretary. Additionally, the NSA Director simultaneously serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service. NSA surveillance has been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, such as its spying on anti-Vietnam war leaders or economic espionage.

As part of these streamlining responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service (CSS), which was created to facilitate cooperation between NSA and other U. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was officially formed as the NSA by Harry S. In 2013, the extent of some of the NSA's secret surveillance programs was revealed to the public by Edward Snowden.